This is a review of the team strategy model and match model research conducted by Leonardo Lamas, Junior Barrera, Guilherme Otranto and Carlos Ugrinowitsch.
Invasion games refer to team games that require one team to invade another team’s defense to score. In order for these teams to be successful, the players must work together as a whole. Team strategies are more complex than individual strategies and lead to a greater chance of winning.
A model is created that looks at both strategic and tactical alternatives. Strategic alternatives are those when a player’s actions are in agreement with the team’s strategies, in other words the player is working with his teammates. Tactical alternatives are those when a player does not follow the team’s strategy, but is relying on their own experience. In both cases the player is making the decisions, he is just handling the information he sees unravelling in the game differently.
One important element of the model is the action rule. It determines the logical choices a player has in any given situation. Action rules are divided into two categories – high-level and low-level rules. High-level rules consist of a motor skill and low-level rules consist of the individual components of that skill. Therefore, high-level rules include a sequence of low-level rules. When a player is following team strategy, they are using strategic action rule; when they are relying on their past experiences, they are using tactical action rules. In the midst of playing a game, a player must respond to the opposition and often they realize that the team’s strategy will not work in that situation and therefore they will then rely on their own experiences.
A team strategy model framework is constructed. This model looks at whether an action is strategic or tactical, the position of the players, and the intensity of the action. These actions are looked at from both the offensive and defensive perspective. The model then analyzes each play – it looks at how a player’s decision affects how his teammates react. If it is a strategic move then his teammates should move according to the team strategy. The model is then able to lay out team strategy on a map of the playing field.
A match model can now be created that looks at how two teams would interact during a game. Analysts can use this to determine which team has a greater chance of winning a game. They can also look at the probability of how individual players will perform against their opponent. Coaches can use this tool to refine their team strategies in order to react more efficiently to their opponents. Coaches can model possible outcomes related to a player’s decisions, teaching their team how to make better decisions within the circumstances. By following a map of an individual play, players will be able to see how their actions affect their teammates giving them the opportunity to determine how to maximize the efficiency of their own actions in order to maximize the team’s potential of winning the game.
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